This study was aimed to investigate the effects of experimental left varicocele (ELV) repair on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and angiogenesis in rat testis. ELVs were surgically created in 26 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty days after surgery, ELV repair was performed in 13 of the rats. All rats subsequently underwent orchiectomy 30days after the last laparotomy. Histology of ELV-repaired testicles was compared to that of the unrepaired (ELV) group. The frequency of positive HIF-1 alpha findings was significantly lower in the ELV-repaired than in the ELV group. The frequency of positive VEGF findings was also lower in the ELV-repaired than in the ELV group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.238). The mean microvessel density in ELV-repair group was significantly lower than that in the ELV group (P = 0.002). Our study demonstrated that ELV repair may protect tissues from hypoxia and hypoxia-related pathophysiologic events, such as angiogenesis, in rat testis.