While regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies on adults involving the caudate, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and cingulated areas have been reported, no such published data on children exist. In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of pre- and post-treatment regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) differences in children with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and compared them with healthy controls. Eighteen drug-free obsessive compulsive children, aged 11 to 15, without comorbid states except for anxiety disorders - participated in this study. The control group consisted of 12 children, aged 11 to 15, with no medical or psychiatric illnesses. Using SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) scans with Technetium-99m-HMPAO-hexamethly propyleneamine oxime (Tc99mHMPAO), the rCBF was calculated in 15 regions of the control group according to a standard protocol, while in the study group, it was measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with a fixed dose of paroxetine (20 mg qd).,We compared the resulting pre- and post-treatment CBF values for the control group and study group. The. right and left caudates, right and left dorsolateral prefrontals, and cingulate had significantly higher rCBF in children with obsessive compulsive disorder than in the control group. These areas, in addition to the right anteromedial temporal, showed significant rCBF reduction after treatment with paroxetine. The mean percentage of change in obsession scores during the treatment correlated significantly with the baseline and posttreatment rCBF level of the right caudate, post-treatment left caudate, and baseline left caudate. Our findings on children are consistent with adult studies and support the theory of a cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical loop disturbance in OCD.