Background. Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common pediatric malignant primary renal tumor. One of the main drugs used in treatment is actinomycin-D. This was not readily available in Turkey at one time. Carboplatin was used in the primary treatment of WT in order to prevent delays in treatment. The aim of this study is to present the results of patients with WT receiving carboplatin or actinomycin-D therapy. Procedure. Forty-eight consecutive patients with WT treated between July 2005 and December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were treated according to Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group guidelines. Nineteen patients were treated with actinomycin-D and 29 with carboplatin (500 mg/m(2)/dose). The two groups were then compared in terms of 2- and 4-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results. Two-and four-year OS rates in the carboplatin group were 90.0% and 90.0%, compared to 100.0% and 88.0%, respectively, in the non-carboplatin group. Two-and four-year EFS levels in the carboplatin group were 92.0% and 88.0%, respectively, compared to 82.0% and 76.0% in the non-carboplatin group. Two-and four-year DFS levels in the carboplatin group were 92.0% and 86.0%, respectively, compared to 77.0% and 77.0% in the non-carboplatin group. Conclusions. The findings show that the carboplatin can be used as an alternative drug in the primary treatment of WT in the event that actinomycin-D is unavailable or not tolerated. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.