Various kinds of pesticides have been used in cotton production to increase yield and farm income in Turkey. Using a standardized questionnaire, farm management and pest management practices were analyzed on the basis of information gathered from 100 farmers in two provinces, Adana and Kahramanmaras of East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Insecticide use varied considerably between two provinces. The average level of herbicides and fungicides use was slightly higher in Kahramanmaras than in Adana. The mean level of pesticide use, as a total active ingredient, in Adana (2.69 kg/ha) was more than twice of Kahramanmara (1.20 kg/ha). The share of pesticides in the variable cost was 13.47% and1.14% in Adana and Kahramanmara, respectively. Shifting from conventional cotton production to organic production was considered to increase the producers' income and reduce the possible environmental and health hazards. Also, the need for further training and dissemination of information about pesticide use and health effects throughout the Mediterranean Region is stressed.