Arteriosclerosis is characterized by stiffening of arteries. The incremental elastic modulus (Einc) measurement is a good marker of arterial wall stiffness. Metabolic, inflammatory and hemodynamic alterations cause structural changes and vascular complications in end stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the factors that may affect the development of arteriosclerosis by measurement of Einc in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-two patients (16 men; 16 female) on chronic HD with a mean age of 42.2+/-19.3 (range: 15-80) were included in the study. The carotid Einc was measured to determine arteriosclerosis by high-resolution echo-tracking system (Acuson Aspen, Acuson Corp., Mountain View, California, USA). Einc measurement was calculated from transcutaneous measurements of common carotid arterial (CCA) internal diameter and wall thickness and carotid pulse pressure. Common carotid compliance and distensibility were determined from changes in carotid artery diameter during systole and simultaneously measured carotid pulse pressure. Common carotid artery stuffiness (Einc) was influenced by age, systolic blood pressure (SBP). pulse pressure (PP). calcium (Ca) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The distensibility of CCA was correlated with age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), PP, Ca, ALP, and parathormone (PTH). The inflammatory parameter, hs-CRP, was increased with Einc. The mean Einc measurement was found significantly increased in patient receiving vitamin D. In conclusion, the stiffening of carotid artery in HD patients is related not only to hemodynamic changes (increased SBP, PP) but also to metabolic (increased Ca) and to inflammation (increased hs-CRP). Carotid Einc is accepted independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Because of the positive correlation between Einc and serum Ca. vitamin D and Ca containing phosphorus (P) binders should be used carefully.