This study was carried out to determine the floristic characteristics and the conservation status of the plants in the Kozan Castle and the surrounding area in the eastern Mediterranean, Turkey during the years 2008-2011. Total flora of the study area consists of 328 vascular plant taxa belonging to 247 genera and 70 families. Life-form distributions of the taxa are as follows: therophytes 150 species (45.7%), hemicryptophytes 92 species (28.1%), phanerophytes 35 species (10.7%), geophytes 35 species (10.7%) and chamaephytes 16 species (4.8%). The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study as follows; Mediterranean 108 species (32.9%), Irano-Turanian 26 species (7.9%) and Euro-Siberian 10 species (3.1%). The phytogeographic region of taxa 184 species (56.1%) are unknown or multiregional. Percentage of endemic species in the study area was 5% (16 species). According to the IUCN threat categories Sideritis cilicica Boiss. & Bal. endangered, Bupleurum polyactis Post ex Snogerup, Ferulago pachyloba (Fenzl) Boiss., and Verbascum antitauricum Hub.-Mor. vulnerable and the other 12 endemic species were classified as near threatened and least concerned. The flora of the study area has a moderate synanthropization index (30.2%).