The aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of Ecballium elaterium (EE) fruit juice, which has an anti-inflammatory effect, using in vitro human peripheral lymphocytes. To investigate the mutagenic effects of the EE fruit juice, human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with three doses (18, 36, and 72 mu l/l) of fruit juice alone for 24 and 48 h. For investigating the antimutagenic effects of the EE fruit juice, the human lymphocytes were also treated with the mixture of the fruit juice and 0.25 mu g/ml MMC. The EE fruit juice induced the percentage of total CA when used alone (especially the percentage of structural CA than the percentage of the numerical CA) and synergically induced the percentage of total CA when used as a mixture with MMC. The EE fruit juice did not affect the SCE frequency for 24 and 48 h treatment time. In contrast, EE and MMC as a mixture sinergically induced the SCE frequency at the highest concentration for 48 h treatment time only. EE alone did not decrease the RI while it decreased the MI in a dose-dependent manner. EE and MMC as a mixture have a higher cytotoxic effect than the cytotoxic effects of EE alone. As a result, it can be concluded that EE had no antimutagenic effect while EE had a mutagenic and a cytotoxic effect in human peripheral lymphocytes.