Sagliker syndrome (SS) is a novel syndrome that was described in 2004 in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric evaluations and electroencephalography (EEG) findings of patients with CKD and SS to compare them with patients with CKD having characteristics similar to that of the study group, in terms of age and gender. The study group comprised 13 patients with CKD and SS. The control group included 13 patients with CKD. Psychiatric diseases were diagnosed using the Structure Clinical Interview. Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Comparison Scale, Hopelessness Scale, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to the groups. Moreover, EEG recording for all the patients was performed. According to the results obtained from the Structure Clinical Interview, 69.2% of patients with CKD and SS were diagnosed with a mental disease, as compared with only 3 (23.1%) patients with CKD. There was a significant difference between the study and the control group (P < .001). As compared with the control group, patients with CKD and SS had significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Hopelessness Scale. However, patients with CKD and SS had significantly lower scores on the Social Comparison Scale. The MMSE scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups. When the 2 groups were evaluated separately, no significant differences were found between the EEG abnormalities and psychiatric diagnosis of both the groups. However, an evaluation of EEG abnormalities in all cases with CKD suggested a statistically significant difference between them. In the EEG recordings, electrical seizures activity was not enrolled in any of the cases. In the present study, psychiatric morbidity for patients with CKD and SS was worse than for patients with only CKD. These results indicate a need to develop an effective psychologic strategy for dealing with psychiatric disorders among patients with CKD and SS. (C) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.