The large hemipteran family Cicadellidae, or leafhoppers, has more than 2300 species described in 338 genera in the Palearctic region. Many are world-wide pests of crops. Sixty-one leafhopper species were collected in citrus orchards in the Mediterranean Region, but many have low economic importance. Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli), Empoasca alsiosa Ribaut, and E. decipiens Paoli are common and devastating cicadellids. They live on vegetables, vineyards and cotton in summer, moving to citrus later on, when other host-plants are no longer available. On the other hand, members of the Circulifer haematoceps (Mulsant and Rey) complex are less common than the three aforementioned species, but are capable of transmitting Spiroplasma citri Saglio et al., the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease. Many parasitoids and predators of cicadellids have been identified. Gonatopus lunatus Klug on Circulifer haematoceps and Aphelopus sp. on Asymmetrasca decedens and Empoasca decipiens were effective parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Chrysoperla carnea (Stephen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Deraeocoris pallens (Rt.) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Nabis ferus (L.) (Hemiptera: Nabidae), Geocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Paederus f.c. kalalovae Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) are common predators feeding on cicadellids in citrus orchards.