We evaluated the genotoxic risk of workers from textile dyeing plants in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were investigated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 40 workers and compared to those of 32 age-, sex-, and habit-matched healthy controls. Groups were selected after a questionnaire administration. Use of Maras powder (a kind of smokeless tobacco) was considered as modulating factor. The SCEs level did not show significant differences between workers and controls. The frequency of CA was significantly higher in workers than in controls. Use of Maras powder was a significant factor to increase the frequencies of SCE and CA in control group. The level of SCE and CA did not correlate with the age whereas there was a significant correlation between years of exposure and CA frequency. The results of this study revealed the genotoxic risk of textile dyers. Protective measures such as masks and gloves are desirable for preventing or minimizing the occupational exposure.