Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is one of the most difficult problems encountered by health professionals, and it is a very common gynaecological complaint in women of reproductive age. Any structure in the abdomen and/or pelvis could have a role in aetiology of CPP. The aetiology, however, is often unclear and the origin seems can be multifactorial. A multidisciplinary team can offer simultaneous assessment and management of somatic, behavioural and psychosocial components of the pain, and the nurse as an integral member of the healthcare team has an important role to play in ensuring effective care provision. The purpose of this review is to present comprehensive and contemporary information about the gynaecological and non-gynaecological causes of CPP alongside an examination of the role of the nurse in caring for women who experience this problem.