Aim The aim of the present study is to investigate the frequency of celiac disease in children with peptic ulcers and to compare it with that of non-celiac peptic ulcers in terms of clinical and laboratory values.MethodsUpper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in 1769 patients at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, The Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Turkey, between January 2012 and January 2017. These cases consisted of subjects presenting with various GIS symptoms and indicated for endoscopy (with chronic diarrhea, delayed growth and development, abdominal pains, GIS bleeding, etc.). The levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) serum anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), and IgA serum were estimated in the patients with peptic ulcers.ResultsCeliac disease was diagnosed with serology, endoscopy, and histopathology in 250 (14%) of all cases undergoing endoscopy. Peptic ulcers were diagnosed in 74 patients (4.2%) of all cases undergoing endoscopy. tTGA and EMA (+) levels were determined in 22 (29%) of the 74 patients with peptic ulcers, and then the presence of peptic ulcers was investigated in the upper gastrointestinal system using gastrointestinal endoscopy, followed by histopathological confirmation of celiac disease. HP infection was present in 14 (63%) of the patients with celiac disease and in 23 (44%) of non-celiac peptic ulcers; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.12). In the total ulcer group, 10.8% (8/74) of patients with celiac peptic ulcers were negative for HP infection, whereas 21% (8/37) of HP-negative patients with ulcers had celiac disease.ConclusionThere exists a high risk of celiac disease in children with peptic ulcers. We thus recommend celiac disease to be investigated, particularly in HP-negative patients with peptic ulcers but with no history of NSAID use.