Dwarfing genes play an important role in improving yield and adaptability of wheat cultivars in most production environments. Understanding the allelic distribution at dwarfing loci is very important for any wheat-breeding programmes. In this study, we reported the allelic constitution at microsatellite locus Xgwm261 and the two major height-reducing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 among a set of 56 bread wheat cultivars and nine landraces, based on diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assays. With respect to Rht-B1, 37% of the accessions carried the dwarfing allele Rht-B1b, while at Rht-D1, only one accession carried the dwarfing allele Rht-D1b. The allelic state at Rht8 was assayed indirectly by genotyping for the linked microsatellite locus Xgwm261. About 26% of the accessions carried the 192 bp allele (linked with Rht8 gene in some cases), whereas 35 and 12% genotypes carried 165 and 174 bp allele at the microsatellite locus Xgwm261. Cultivars released from 1980 onwards increasingly carried either Rht-B1b or Rht8. This information should allow for a more rational use of this collection for the purpose of wheat improvement in Turkey.