Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a valuable source for alien chromosome translocations in wheat breeding, due to its capability to grow and sustain under harsh environmental conditions. Wheat germplasm with 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocations have been used worldwide by breeders. Determining 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS translocations in wheat is therefore of important practical value for wheat improvement. In this study, nine rye-specific markers detecting the rye chromosome 1RS in wheat background were evaluated. The markers PAWS5/S6, SCM9 and O-SEC5'-A/O-SEC3'-R amplified specific bands associated with 1AL.1RS and 1BL.1RS translocations. These three markers therefore provide a quick and reliable tool to identify and to discriminate these two wheat-rye translocations in wheat background. Six out of nine rye specific markers were subsequently used to determine the frequency of these translocations in commonly grown bread and durum wheat cultivars from Turkey. One hundred seven wheat cultivars and landraces were molecularly screened. Among them, only 4% ('Seri-82', 'YA +/- ldA +/- z-98', 'Tahirova', and 'Osmaniyem') harbor the 1BL.1RS translocation whereas the 1AL.1RS translocation was not found. The information provided here will contribute to the creation of new Turkish wheat populations with a larger genetic diversity necessary for future requirements.