This in vitro study investigated the mechanical and structural characteristics of lignin-added PMMA resin composites at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% by weight. Four sample groups were formed. For the transverse strength test, the specimens were prepared in accordance with ANSI/ADA specification number 12, and for the impact test ASTMD-256 standards were used. With the intent to evaluate the properties of transverse strength, the three-point bending (n = 10) test instrument (Lloyd NK5, Lloyd Instruments Ltd., Fareham, Hampshire, UK) was used at 5 mm/min. A Dynatup 9250 HV (Instron, UK) device was employed for the impact strength measurements (n = 10). All resin samples were tested by using a thermomechanical analyzer (Shimadzu TMA 50, Shimadzu, Japan). Mechanical tests revealed that, although the control group was found to have the value of highest transverse strength, the highest impact strength was observed in the PMMA-L-1 group. Upon examining the thermomechanical analysis data, it could be seen that the E value of the control sample was higher than that of all the other samples. Adding lignin powder into PMMA performs plasticizer effect on resin matrix.