Objective: The aim of this study is to compare patients who have recurrent and first episode major depressive disorder and healthy controls based upon their childhood traumas. Methods: Sixty subjects with the diagnoses of primarily as major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR who admitted Bezm-i Alem Valide Sultan Vakif Gureba Education and Research Hospital and 30 mentally healthy subjects were included in the study. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Hamilton Depression Scale, Childhood Trauma Questions List and sociodemographic form were applied to both patient and control group. Results: Emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional negligence and physical negligence scores were significantly higher in recurrent and first episode depression groups than the control group. It was found that age of onset is earlier in the recurrent group than the first episode group. Childhood trauma scores were higher in recurrent major depression group than those in the first episode major depression group. There was a significant relationship between childhood traumas and early onset of depression. Discussion: There is a relationship between major depression and childhood traumas and this may be one of the reasons that led to relapse of depression. This relationship must be taken into consideration when evaluating recurrent or treatment resistant major depressive patients.