Stochastic convergence of ecological footprint: new insights from a unit root test based on smooth transitions and nonlinear adjustment

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Alper A. E., Alper F. O., Cil A. B., İşcan E., Eren A. A.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.30, no.8, pp.22100-22114, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-23763-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.22100-22114
  • Keywords: Stochastic convergence, Smooth transition, Nonlinearity, Per-capita ecological footprint
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


The ecological footprint has currently become a highly popular environmental performance indicator. It provides the basis for setting goals, identifying options for action, and tracking progress toward stated goals. Because the examination of the existence of convergence is important for the climate change protection of the earth, the convergence of ecological footprint and its subcomponents are a major concern for scholars and policymakers. To this end, this study aims to investigate the stochastic convergence of ecological footprint and its subcomponents. We employ the recently developed Hepsag (2021) unit root test that allows nonlinearity and smooth structural change simultaneously to study stochastic convergence in per-capita ecological footprint over the period 1961-2018 for the most polluting countries. The results provide mixed evidence of the presence of stochastic convergence in conventional unit root tests such as ADF, KPSS and Fourier KPSS. According to the Hepsag (2021) unit root test results for all countries, built-up land footprint converges except Australia, Malaysia, Poland, and Turkey. Carbon footprint converges for Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, the UK, and the USA. Cropland footprint converges for Australia, Canada, China, France, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, the UK, and Vietnam. Fishing grounds footprint converges in Brazil, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, and Vietnam. Forest product footprint converges in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, India, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam. Grazing land footprint converges in Canada, France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Poland, South Africa, Thailand, and Vietnam. And lastly, the total ecological footprint converges in Canada, France, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, the UK, and the USA.