In the present study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the low-caloric artificial sweetener maltitol, which is a sugar alcohol (polyol), were investigated in the bone marrow cells of rats using the chromosome aberration (CA) test. In addition, the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of maltitol was also investigated in rats. To reveal the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of maltitol, rats were intraperitoneally administered 2.5, 5 and 10g/kgbody weight (bw) concentrations of maltitol for 6, 12 and 24h treatment period. The pregnant females were intraperitoneally treated with 1, 2 and 4g/kgbw/day concentrations of maltitol during the first 7 days of gestation (first trimester) to investigate the teratogenicity of maltitol. The embryos were collected after killing the dams by cervical dislocation under ether anaesthesia on gestation day 19. Maltitol did not induce the CA and did not decrease the mitotic index in bone marrow cells of rats at all concentrations and treatment periods. In addition, maltitol was not teratogenic; however, it decreased the foetuses weight and at the highest dose (4g/kgbw) caused growth retardation.