Background: Nitric oxide is synthesized from L-arginine and catalyzed by a family of NOS. There are three different NOS isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS). Nitric oxide is an important apoptosis regulator in mammalian system that can induce and prevent apoptosis depending on levels of NO production and environmental conditions of the cell. NOS expression and its relationship with apoptosis has not been well elucidated in listerial meningoencephalitis in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate eNOS and iNOS expressions in the brain of sheep with natural listeriosis and to compare them with apoptosis which is shaped in the region.