The number of trinucleotide repeats [CAG (coding for polyglutamine), GGC (coding for polyglycine)] in the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene androgen response element I A/G polymorphism are both related to prostate cancer prognosis. We investigated whether these genomic changes occur in the AR and PSA genes, which are usually found in individuals with prostate cancer, of Turkish patients and to find out their distribution in the population. We used PCR and PCR-RFLP assays for AR and PSA genes, respectively, to detect molecular changes in 44 prostate cancer patients. Our findings indicate that individuals with prostate cancer tend to have around 18 CAG trinucleotide repeats. We observed significant differences between 22 controls, 33 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 44 adenocarcinoma patients for long CAG repeats. However, we did not find any significant differences in GGC repeats between controls, BPH and adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.408). We also did not observe significant differences in the PSA A/G polymorphism frequency between controls, BPH and adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.483). In conclusion, CAG and GGC repeats in the AR and PSA gene polymorphisms may be associated with prostate cancer risk and BPH in the Turkish population.