INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLANNING FOR INCREASING OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION


GÜNGÖR C. , GÜLTEKİN U. , ÖZTÜRK H. H.

ULUSLARARASI 29 EKİM BİLİMSEL ARAŞTIRMALAR SEMPOZYUMU, İzmir, Türkiye, 26 - 29 Ekim 2019, cilt.1, no.1, ss.34-44

  • Cilt numarası: 1
  • Basıldığı Şehir: İzmir
  • Basıldığı Ülke: Türkiye
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.34-44

Özet

Bu çalışmada, yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından elektrik üretim maliyetleri değerlendirilmiştir. Gelişmekte olan ülkelerde kalkınma bütçesinin % 30'unu enerji giderleri oluşturmaktadır. Enerji üretiminin hızlı bir şekilde artması, kalkınmayı da sınırlandırabilecek çevresel etkilere yol açmaktadır. Bu nedenle, enerji verimliliğini artırmanın başlıca gerekçelerinden birisi, enerji tüketiminin, yerel kirlilik ve küresel sera gazı salımlarından, enerji arz maliyetlerine ve planlama çalışmalarına yansımayan enerji ve nükleer güvenlik risklerine kadar çeşitli dışsallıklara neden olmasıdır. Kişi başına enerji tüketimi, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde sanayileşmiş ülkelere göre daha az olmakla birlikte, erken dönemlerde etkin teknolojiyi benimseyen bir gelişme sürecini izleyerek enerji verimliliğinin ekonomik getirilerinden ve çevresel yararlarından yararlanabilirler.

Enerji verimliliği girişimlerinin en etkili şekilde uygulandığı planlama ve politika bağlamına entegre kaynak planlama (IRP) denir. IRP, çevresel ve sosyal maliyetler dahil olmak üzere, asgari maliyetle enerji hizmeti sunmak amacıyla, enerji tedarik ve talep tarafı yönetimi (DSM) seçeneklerinin birlikte dikkate alınmasıdır. IRP, çevresel ve sosyal maliyetler de dahil olmak üzere, enerji hizmetlerini asgari maliyetle sağlamak için, DSM seçenekleri de dahil olmak üzere, enerji tedariklerinin ve enerji verimliliği iyileştirmelerinin bir araya getirilmesidir. Çok sayıda ekonomik, sosyal ve çevresel hedefi yerine getirmesi gereken modern enerji planlamasının karmaşık doğası, bu sıklıkla çelişen hedefleri birleştiren ve mümkün olan en geniş geleneksel ve alternatif enerji kaynakları yelpazesini göz önünde bulunduran bir planlama sürecinin uygulanmasını gerektirir. Piyasa ekonomisinde bu tür değişikliklerin uygulanmasındaki zorluk, çevre kalitesi değerinin piyasada işlem görmemesi, kurumsal engeller ve enerji verimliliği teknolojilerinin faydalarının piyasa tarafından tam olarak değerlendirilememesidir. IRP'den kaynaklanan planları ve kaynak tahsislerini uygulamak için genellikle daha yüksek enerji fiyatlarına ihtiyaç duyulur. Bununla birlikte, fiyat ölçütleri eksik rekabet ve eksik bilgi içeren bir pazarda yeterli bir çözüm değildir.

Energy also places excessive demands on investment capital in developing nations, many of which spend more than 30 percent of their entire development budget on energy. Rapid energy production growth leads to environmental impacts which can also constrain development. Thus, one of the principal reasons for pursuing energy-efficiency improvements is that energy consumption leads to pervasive externalities, ranging from local pollution and global greenhouse gases to energy and nuclear security risks, that are not reflected in energy supply costs and planning efforts. Although developing countries use much less energy per capita than industrialized countries, they can still benefit from the economic savings and environmental advantages of energy efficiency by following a course of development that adopts efficient technology in the early stages.

The planning and policy context in which these types of energy-efficiency initiatives have been most effectively implemented is called integrated resources planning (IRP). IRP is the combined development of electricity supplies and demand-side management (DSM) options to provide energy services at minimum cost, including environmental and social costs. IRP is the combined development of electricity supplies and energy-efficiency improvements, including DSM options, to provide energy services at minimum cost, including environmental and social costs. The complex nature of modern energy planning, which must satisfy multiple economic, social and environmental objectives, requires the application of a planning process that integrates these often-conflicting objectives and considers the widest possible range of traditional and alternative energy resources. The difficulty with implementing such changes in a market economy is that the value of environmental quality is not traded in the market, since it is a common social good, and that the benefits of energy efficiency technologies are not fully captured by the market, because of various market distortions and institutional barriers that have been extensively documented. Higher energy prices are often needed to implement the plans and resource allocations resulting from IRP, but price measures are not a sufficient solution in a market with imperfect competition and incomplete information.

Energy also places excessive demands on investment capital in developing nations, many of which spend more than 30 percent of their entire development budget on energy. Rapid energy production growth leads to environmental impacts which can also constrain development. Thus, one of the principal reasons for pursuing energy-efficiency improvements is that energy consumption leads to pervasive externalities, ranging from local pollution and global greenhouse gases to energy and nuclear security risks, that are not reflected in energy supply costs and planning efforts. Although developing countries use much less energy per capita than industrialized countries, they can still benefit from the economic savings and environmental advantages of energy efficiency by following a course of development that adopts efficient technology in the early stages.

The planning and policy context in which these types of energy-efficiency initiatives have been most effectively implemented is called integrated resources planning (IRP). IRP is the combined development of electricity supplies and demand-side management (DSM) options to provide energy services at minimum cost, including environmental and social costs. IRP is the combined development of electricity supplies and energy-efficiency improvements, including DSM options, to provide energy services at minimum cost, including environmental and social costs. The complex nature of modern energy planning, which must satisfy multiple economic, social and environmental objectives, requires the application of a planning process that integrates these often-conflicting objectives and considers the widest possible range of traditional and alternative energy resources. The difficulty with implementing such changes in a market economy is that the value of environmental quality is not traded in the market, since it is a common social good, and that the benefits of energy efficiency technologies are not fully captured by the market, because of various market distortions and institutional barriers that have been extensively documented. Higher energy prices are often needed to implement the plans and resource allocations resulting from IRP, but price measures are not a sufficient solution in a market with imperfect competition and incomplete information.