Objectives/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the cochlea and the potential dose-dependent effects of resveratrol (RSV) against diabetes mellitus (DM) ototoxicity. Study Design Animal model. Methods Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Baseline distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were evaluated. Group I was the control group, group II was made diabetic with single-dose streptozotocin, and groups III and IV were rendered diabetic as group II and administered 10 and 20 mg RSV, respectively, intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. All animals were sacrificed after repeated DPOAE measurement. Apoptosis was investigated using caspase-3, Bax (Bcl-associated X protein), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) staining. Results The DPOAE values in the diabetic group were found to be significantly lower compared with the other groups at 5,714 Hz and 8,000 Hz (P < .05). No significant difference in otoacoustic emission was detected in the comparison of the RSV doses (P > .05). The histopathologic investigation using caspase-3, Bax, and TUNEL staining showed that the mean rank of the diabetic group was significantly higher compared with the RSV10, RSV20, and control groups (DM > RSV10 > RSV20 > control) (P < .05). Conclusions These results imply that RSV administration offered statistically significant protection for the cochleas of rats against diabetes. This protective effect improved histologically with higher doses.