Comparison of Stainless Steel and Ultra-High Strength Steel Usage as a Piston Head Material in Internal Combustion Engines

Özcanlı M. , Akar M. A. , Karaçor B.

5th International Mediterranean Science and Engineering Congress (IMSEC 2020), Antalya, Turkey, 21 - 23 October 2020, pp.254-258

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Antalya
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.254-258


The weight reduction of any auto part has recently become a subject of attention by different engineering

disciplines. With the correct design of these parts, significant weight reduction will bring many advantages,

especially fuel economy, to vehicles. At this point, piston heads in almost every vehicle engine take an active

role compared to other parts. The main purpose of this study is to see how much weight reduction in ultrahigh

strength steel used in the piston head in internal combustion engines. Various piston types with different

geometries are considered and 10 units of engines are designed using Computer Aided Design Software

(CATIA). One type of engine was chosen for using this study. The designs were analyzed by Finite Element

Analysis (FEA) method. The Finite element method is used because it gives an efficient result in terms of time

and modeling. One of the piston head was made of structural steel and used as a reference for comparison. The

other piston head is made of advanced steel to achieve weight reduction by improving the design Both designs

will be analyzed and compared in terms of stress, deformation, and safety factor. The results of the analysis show

that the use of UHSS can provide a significant weight reduction for the piston head compared to stainless steel.

Thus, the use of advanced steel provides fuel efficiency throughout the life of the vehicle and can also reduce

CO₂ emissions.