Evaluation of risk factors in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the value of chromID Candida agar versus CHROMagar Candida for recovery and presumptive identification of vaginal yeast species

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GÜZEL A. B., Ilkit M., AKAR T., Burgut R., DEMİR S. C.

MEDICAL MYCOLOGY, vol.49, no.1, pp.16-25, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.3109/13693786.2010.497972
  • Journal Name: MEDICAL MYCOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.16-25
  • Keywords: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, CHROMagar Candida, chromID Candida agar, polyfungal, vaginitis, CHROMOGENIC MEDIUM, TORULOPSIS-GLABRATA, CLINICAL SPECIMENS, FUNGAL VAGINITIS, ALBICANS, DUBLINIENSIS, PERFORMANCE, FEMALE, WOMEN
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly the recurrent form, remains an intractable problem for clinicians, microbiologists, and patients. It is essential to confirm the clinical diagnosis by mycological methods and avoid empirical therapy. The recovery of yeast in fungal culture, such as on Sabouraud dextrose agar, remains the gold standard for diagnosis. In this investigation, we examined 474 participants, including 122 (25.7%) with acute VVC cases, 249 (52.5%) who had recurrent VVC (RVVC) cases, and 103 (21.7%) healthy controls. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain information on patient lifestyle and medical, gynecological, and sexual history. In addition, we compared the performance of chromID Candida agar (CAN2) to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol (SGC2). The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including the germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX system. We detected yeasts in 60 of 122 (49.2%) patients with acute VVC cases, 110 of 249 (44.2%) with RVVC cases, and in 35 of 103 (34%) healthy controls (P = 0.07). A total of 205 samples were found to be positive for fungi (43.2%), of which 176 (85.9%) were monofungal, and 29 (14.1%) were polyfungal. In addition, 198 of these samples (96.6%) were positive on CAN2, 195 (95.1%) on CAC, 189 (92.2%) on SGC2, and 183 (89.3%) samples on all three (P = 0.17). The 234 yeast isolates recovered were C. albicans (n = 118), C. glabrata (n = 82), C. kefyr (n = 11), C. krusei (n = 9), C. lipolytica (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 2), C. pelliculosa (n = 2), C. tropicalis (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 3). Of the 29 polyfungal populations, 28 (96.6%) were detected in CAN2, 25 in (86.2%) CAC, and 25 (86.2%) on both (P = 0.35). Notably, we detected the high predominance of C. albicans+C. glabrata (86.2%) in polyfungal populations. Briefly, the detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on CAN2 (64.4%) than on CAC (25.4%). This study showed that CAN2 is a rapid and reliable medium for immediate identification of C. albicans and for detecting polyfungal populations in vaginal specimens. We observed that the use of antibiotics, intrauterine devices, as well as, perineal laceration, short anovaginal distance (< 3 cm), and genital epilation in common areas are predisposing factors for RVVC (P < 0.001). In addition, we detected that the use of menstrual pad, using an (IUD), and having a history of childbirth increased the risk of both acute and recurrent VVC (P < 0.01), whereas the use of a daily pad and walking daily significantly decreased the risk of both acute and recurrent VVC (P < 0.01).