Background/aims: This study was conducted as a seroprevalence study on hepatitis C virus infection in a small city located in southern Anatolia, to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus and to explore the potential risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection at this population level. Material and Methods: A total of 1427 (685 male (48%), 742 female) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Risk factors were examined using a questionnaire. All blood samples were tested using third-generation anti-hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The overall anti-hepatitis C virus prevalence was 3.1% (44/1427). There was a steady rise in the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity with age; the anti-hepatitis C virus prevalence was slightly higher in men (3.6%) than women (2.6%). The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity was significantly higher in primary school graduates (3.4%) (odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-11.6, p=0.0001) and in illiterate subjects (5.0%) (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4, p=0.021) compared to secondary-plus graduates. Anti-hepatitis C virus positivity was higher (3.7%) in married subjects (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 1.2-63.7, p=0.003) compared to single subjects (0.0%). Having dental procedure, delivery at home, provocative abortion, working abroad, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were factors found to increase the anti-hepatitis C virus positivity significantly. Conclusions: In the region of the current study, the anti-hepatitis C virus seroprevalence was higher compared to the whole country. Illiteracy, previous dental procedures, and working abroad in neighboring countries seem to be factors that relate to this high ratio.