In this report, we briefly describe the general design principles and construction of a newly developed ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system. This system provides an imaging mode with < 20 mu m spatial resolution in one dimension as well as an angle-resolved mode. The new imaging mode enables us to study structured surfaces under catalytically and environmentally relevant conditions. To illustrate this capability, in situ studies on a Au-SiO2 heterojunction and Rh-TiO2 metal-support system are presented. This new system can probe structured surfaces near ambient pressure as a function of temperature, pressure, electrical potential, local position, and time. It is a valuable in situ tool to detect material transformations at the micrometer scale. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.