The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and/or cytotoxic effects of Tamiflu, commercial form of the oseltamivir antiviral and most frequently prescribed for the treatment of influenza infections, on cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration (CA), and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2 mu g/mL oseltamivir, the Tamiflu capsule ingredient, for 24 or 48 h in the absence or presence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix). The test chemical did not demonstrate any genotoxic effect dose-dependently but it showed a weak cytotoxicity on cells in this study. On the other hand, some concentrations of Tamiflu (2 mu g/mL without S9 mix for 48 h and 1 mu g/mL with S9 mix) induced SCE and also decreased significantly the proliferation index (PI) (48 h period) and the nuclear division index (NDI) (24 h period) (P < 0.05) in the absence of S9 mix. Considering the results, Tamiflu did not induce significant increases of CA or micronucleated cells in vitro in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes under the treatment conditions used but weak SCE induction was observed. On the other hand, the weak cytotoxic effects observed disappeared in the cultures treated in presence of the S9 mix.