Studies on mutation breeding in citrus: Improving seedless types of 'Kozan' common orange by gamma irradiation


ÇİMEN B. , YEŞİLOĞLU T. , İNCESU M. , YILMAZ B.

SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE, vol.278, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 278
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109857
  • Title of Journal : SCIENTIA HORTICULTURAE

Abstract

This study reports an induced physical mutation by gamma irradiation on a local sweet orange variety in order to develop new seedless varieties. Mature autumn shoots of seedy 'Kozan' common orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) trees were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60. The survival rate was 65 % for the dose of 60 Gy irradiation treatment of 'Kozan' common orange. In order to stabilize the mutation, mV(3) plants were developed by rebudding and plants at mV(3) generation were transplanted in the orchard in 2016. Observations in the present study were recorded for three consecutive years and trees which produced a sufficient number of fruits were evaluated for 19 fruit quality characters such as seed number, fruit diameter and maturity index. The seed number varied from 0 to 11, 0-10.82, and 0-10 per fruit in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Besides, high variations were observed in the mV3 population in terms of fruit weight and rind thickness. Through investigation of three years, two clones were completely seedless and selected as promising types. Vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the fruit juice of the selected types were similar control. Furthermore, ploidy levels of the selections were investigated in order to explain the cause of seedlessness. Selected types were determined as diploid with the aid of flow cytometry. The selected lines were propagated in the field to confirm their stability and new commercial field trials have been conducted to evaluate the performances of the selections on different rootstocks.