This study included 45 patients with intentional insecticide intoxication and 21 with accidental intoxication who were treated at the First-Aid and Emergency Department of Balcali Hospital at the Faculty of Medicine in the Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey, while the control group consisted of 25 people selected from university personnel known to be healthy. Patients with a history of X-ray exposure in the last 6 months or of any virus disease as well as continuous drug users and smokers were excluded, leaving a total of 49 patients. Acetylcholine esterase (Pseudocholinesterase) enzyme (AchE), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), the mitotic index (MI), and the replication index (RI) were evaluated. Blood samples were cultured for SCE evaluation and sera separated for AchE levels. Insecticide exposure was generally intentional for suicide in adolescents and at older ages, but accidental for children. AchE levels were found to be significantly lower in organophosphorus (OP) and carbamated (CB) insecticide poisoning groups in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001), while the pyrethroid (PY) group was not statistically different for the AchE effect (p > 0.05). SCE was found to be significantly higher in OP and CB groups (p < 0.001), while the PY and control groups were statistically similar for SCE levels (p > 0.05). This study showed an increase in SCE in response to orally ingested insecticides. These findings indicate that insecticide exposure results in cell abnormalities, with resulting impediments to the division and replication of cells, as suggested by MI decreases and RI increases, while the speed of the division cycles of stimulated cells increases.