The role of parasitic infection in the aetiology of acute appendicitis has been discussed for more than 100 years. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in surgically removed appendices, and to identify whether this type of infection is associated with appendicitis. 104 appendices were removed from patients clinically diagnosed with acute appendicitis, and 30 were removed in the course of other surgical procedures. All the operations were performed at Baskent University Adana Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004. Enterobius vermicularis was identified in 4 (3.8%) appendices from patients with clinical appendicitis, and Entamoeba histolytica was detected in 1 (1.0%) appendix from this group. No parasites were found in the 30 appendices that were removed during other surgical procedures. Specimens from 3 of the 4 appendices with E. vermicularis showed no histological evidence of acute inflammation. It is concluded that parasites in the appendix may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis, but parasitic infection rarely causes acute appendicitis.