L-Glutamic acid monosodium salt reduces the harmful effect of lithium on the development ofXenopus laevisembryos


BOĞA PEKMEZEKMEK A. , EMRE M. , Tunc E., SERTDEMİR Y.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, cilt.27, ss.42124-42132, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 27 Konu: 33
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11356-020-10155-x
  • Dergi Adı: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.42124-42132

Özet

Many xenobiotics in the environment affect the human body in various ways. Among those xenobiotics, lithium chloride (Li, LiCl) and monosodium glutamate (L-glutamic acid monosodium salt, MSG) compounds affect the crucial processes of stem cell differentiation, cell proliferation, developmental gene expression, and overall development in animals. In this study, we aimed to examine the developmental effects of exposure to flavor enhancer MSG and LiCI medicament onXenopusembryos using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay ofXenopustest. To this purpose,Xenopus laevisembryos were exposed to four different concentrations of MSG (120, 500, 750, 1000 mg/dL) and Li (0.02 g/L) alone and in combinations for a period of 96 h, and then normal, abnormal, and death ratios were determined in all exposure groups. Besides, length values of all groups and membrane potentials of fertilized and non-fertilized oocyte groups treated with 120- and 500-mg/dL MSG doses and 0.02-g/L LiCI dose were measured. Treatment with ADI (acceptable daily intake) dose of MSG alone did not lead to a substantial effect on the development ofXenopus laevisembryos. But, exposure to daily doses exceeding the ADI level (500, 750, 1000 mg/dL) caused significant harmful effects. Besides, Li-involving treatments caused dramatic deleterious effects on embryo development. MSG attenuated harmful effects of Li in MSG+Li combined treatments. Membrane potentials of non-fertilized oocytes and fertilized eggs were significantly changed in all groups that their membrane potentials were measured. Extrapolating these results into humans require similarly designed studies conducted on human embryos.