The effect of phosphorus based flame retardants on the thermal and fire retardant properties of chicken feather/thermoplastic polyurethane composites

Mutlu A., Dogan M.

GREEN MATERIALS, vol.0, no.0, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 0 Issue: 0
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1680/jgrma.23.00008
  • Journal Name: GREEN MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: No


The aim of the study was to enhance the flame-retardant properties of chicken feather (CF) reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites by incorporating three different phosphorus-based flame retardants, namely aluminum hypophosphite (AHP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and aluminum diethyl phosphinate (AlPi), at concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 wt%. The effectiveness of the additives was evaluated through various tests, including limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL 94 V), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss calorimeter test (MLC). The results indicated that all three additives exhibited flame retardant properties in both the condensed and gas phases, but APP and AHP performed better than AlPi due to their enhanced char formation capabilities. The flame retardant effectiveness of the additives decreased in the order of APP > AHP > AlPi.