Seepage problems in the karstic limestone foundation of the Kalecik Dam (south Turkey)


ENGINEERING GEOLOGY, cilt.63, ss.247-257, 2002 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 63
  • Basım Tarihi: 2002
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/s0013-7952(01)00085-0
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.247-257


Seepage phenomena through the karstic limestone foundation of Kalecik Dam are investigated. The dam, designed as a rock-fill dam with a height of 77 m, is already used for irrigation. The foundation consists of Mesozoic ophiolite, Paleocene allochthonous units composed of different lithologies, and Miocene conglomerate. The conglomerate lies unconformably on the other units. Quaternary basaltic lava patchily covers the others. Seepage from upstream to downstream occurs through the allochthonous karstic limestone. This limestone, which is overlain by conglomerates, has a thickness increasing towards the right abutment. To prevent seepage at the right abutment, a 200-m long and 60-m deep grout curtain along the dam axis was constructed. After the impoundment, some springs occurred downstream, and for this reason, extra grouting was performed. However, the seepage problem could not be solved. In order to determine, the seepage direction and karstification pattern, hydrological studies have been done. Additional investigation boreholes have been drilled to observe fluctuations of the groundwater level and to analyze hydrochemistry. Also, dye tracer tests have been carried out. As a result of these hydrogeological studies, seepage paths were observed in the karstic limestone located between the dam and the spillway. As those carbonate rocks continue beneath the spillway, the seepage problems are enjected to continue. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved.