A survey on the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and hemoglobinopathies (Hb S and beta thalassemia) was carried out in an ethnically mixed and carefully registered population of 45,000 living in an area in the Southern Turkey. A total of 1223 subjects (representing the population with respect to sex and age group) were surveyed. The rate of anemia was found to be 16.9% overall with a highest prevalence of 18.3% in the children (0-2 ages) and 16.3% in the 14+ age group. The prevalence of iron deficiency using low transferrin saturation as criteria was found to be 17.2% overall, being 48.0% in the infant group, 19.6% in the children, and 14.7% in the 14+ age group. The rate of Hb S using the sickling test was found to be 3.9% in the entire population without separating for ethnic groups. It was more prevalent (9.6%) in the Arabic speaking and not found at all in the Kurdish speaking people. The rate of beta thalassemia with a high HbA(2) was 3.4% overall and highest (7.1%) in the Kurdish speaking people.