A beneficiation procedure for possible refractory uses of Bitlis Massif (Turkey) kyanite ore has been developed and involves grinding to d(80) = 0.106 mm, de-sliming, mica flotation, iron oxide flotation and kyanite flotation. A concentrate containing 56-5% Al2O3, 39-01% SiO2, 0-8% Fe2O3, 0-18% TiO2, 0.09% Na2O, 0-1% K2O and 0.02% MgO was obtained at a mass recovery of 51.14% +/- 0.25%. This conforms to both the chemical and size specifications for ceramic uses required to meet American and Chinese standards. (C) 2004 Institute of Materials, Minerals & Mining. Published by Maney on behalf of the Institute in association with AusIMM. Manuscript received 23 December 2003; accepted in final form 2 June 2004.