Water leakage from the power tunnel of Gezende Dam, southern Turkey: a case study

Turkmen S.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.61, no.2, pp.419-427, 2010 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 61 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-009-0354-4
  • Page Numbers: pp.419-427


This study covers the investigations of the reasons of deformations and leakages in the energy tunnels of Gezende Dam constructed in 1990 for hydroelectric energy and the recommendations for treatments of the problems. Gezende Dam is located 30 km southwest of Mut county/Mersin in southern Turkey. The dam is concrete arch type with a height of 72 m. The energy tunnel with an approximate length of 9 km passes through six different geological units in age of Mesozoic to Cenozoic. After a short period of time of the operation of the tunnel, leakage has started from the section of gypsum, which is intercalated with dolomitic limestone between chainage from 5,970 to 6,840 m. The deformations have occurred in the concrete tunnel and springs have been detected at different places and times through the Ermenek Canyon since 1996. The preventive precautions of the water effect caused by groundwater effect on gypsum are as follows: (1) contact and consolidation grouting in the tunnel between chainage from 5,910 to 6,840 m, (2) removal of damage on the tunnel line, (3) reinforcement of the tunnel again, and (4) application of new concrete lining. Besides, a drainage gallery of 320 m was excavated in the 23 m lower and 15 m left part of tunnel base elevation in order to diminish the effect of groundwater in the section where the deformation occurred.