Characterization of Ayran Aroma Active Compounds by Solvent-Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry (GC-MS-O) and Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA)


ANALYTICAL LETTERS, vol.52, no.13, pp.2077-2091, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00032719.2019.1594244
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2077-2091
  • Keywords: Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), flavor dilution (FD), linear retention index (LRI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O), odor activity value (OAV), solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), Turkish ayran, SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION, VOLATILE COMPONENTS, MILK, IDENTIFICATION, HYDROCARBONS, PATHWAYS, CHEESES, QUALITY, YOGURT, BUTTER
  • Çukurova University Affiliated: Yes


The aroma compounds of ayran were isolated using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) resulting in a more representative extract of ayran odor compared to liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). The aromatic extract was subjected to sensory analysis and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 19 volatile compounds were detected that included alcohols, aldehyde, acids, esters, ketones, and terpenes. However, the compounds present at the highest concentrations were ethyl lactate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, and acetic acid. The key odorants for the ayran drinks were detected using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and GC-MS-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). A total of 14 aroma-active compounds were determined for the first time. The flavor dilution (FD) factors ranged between 4 and 512 while their odor activity values (OAVs) were from 1.35 to 1126.99. Ethyl lactate (FD of 512 whey/creamy), 2-methylbutanal (FD of 512, fruity), acetoin (FD of 256, buttery creamy), and butanoic acid (FD of 256, cheesy-sweet) were the strongest aroma-active components of the Ayran drink.