This chapter reviews irrigation development and policy with specific references to the main water- and land-based regional socioeconomic development projects in Turkey. It analyzes the expansion of irrigation investment as well as institutional and technological changes in irrigation policy and development in parallel with policies of liberalization and decentralization in the late 1980s. The chapter also discusses institutional changes in the management of the irrigation systems as a result of (partial) transfer of management of large-scale irrigation systems to a variety of water user organizations. Finally, it describes current technological and institutional problems and the further challenges to the irrigation sector, such as infrastructure deterioration, risks of drought, environmental and ecological system degradation, and insufficient investment. It also notes the efforts to equip new irrigation schemes with modern technology, such as closed pipes for conveying water instead of open channels, and water-saving micro-irrigation methods rather than surface irrigation techniques.