To investigate the specific mutations in PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, and HESX1 genes in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in Turkey. Seventy-six patients with CPHD were included in this study. Based on clinical, hormonal, and neuro-radiological data, relevant transcription factor genes were evaluated by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Total frequency of mutations was 30.9 % in patients with CPHD. Frequency was significantly higher in familial patients (p = 0.001). Three different types of mutations in PROP1 gene (complete gene deletion, c.301-302delAG, a novel mutation; IVS1+2T > G) were found in 12 unrelated patients (21.8 %). Mutations in PROP1 gene were markedly higher in familial than in sporadic cases (58.8 vs. 5.3 %, p < 0.001). Homozygous complete gene deletion was the most common mutation in PROP1 gene (8/12) and was identified in six familial patients. Four different homozygous mutations [p.Q4X, novel mutations; exons 1-2 deletion, p.V153F, p.I244S] were detected in POU1F1 gene. Central precocious puberty was firstly observed in a sporadic-male patient with homozygous POU1F1 (p.I244S) mutation. A homozygous mutation in HESX1 gene (p.R160H) was detected in one patient. This study is the first to investigate specific mutations in CPHD patients in Turkey. Complete deletion in PROP1 gene was the most common mutation encountered in patients with CPHD. We believe that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of genetic screening strategies in Turkey, as well as to the studies on phenotype-genotype correlations and early diagnosis of CPHD patients.