Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by recurrent fever, serositis and arthritis. The disease is highly prevalent in Mediterranean basin populations. Recently, the gene responsible for FMF (MEFV) was cloned and at least 40 MEFV gene mutations have been identified. The most frequently observed mutations in the MEFV gene are M694V, M694I, M680I, and V726A. These occur within exon 10 of the gene, and account for 85% of the known MEFV alleles. In this study, the reliability and economical aspects of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques were compared for analyzing the frequencies of the major point mutations of 90 unrelated patients with FMF from the Cukurova region in Turkey. Both techniques yielded similar results: The ratio of independent alleles of 90 patients carrying one of the tested mutations was 81.1%; patients consisted of 12 different genotypes. In 64 of 90 patients (71.1%) mutations were observed in both alleles. Thirty-six patients (40%) were homozygous for the same mutation, 28 (31.1%) were heterozygous for different mutations. Eighteen patients (20%) were heterozygous for one allele with one of the four mutations but the other allele was unknown. In 8 patients (8.8%) no mutation could be detected. The most frequently observed mutation was M694V (51.66%), followed by M680I (17.22%), V726A (10.55%), and M694I (1.66%). In conclusion ARMS and PCR-RFLP techniques were equally reliable to detect the mutations in Turkish IMF patients. However, the ARMS technique was found to be more rapid and economical than the PCR-RFLP techniques.