Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a cytokine that promotes endothelial cell proliferation, leucocyte chemotaxis and expression of adhesion molecules and is a major mediator of vascular permeability. It has been demonstrated that VEGF directly activates neutrophils and it could promote acute recruitment of leucocytes. It is known that neutrophils are the major cell population involved in acute inflammation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and the role of VEGF in these cells may be crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 936 C/T functional polymorphism of the VEGF gene is associated with susceptibility to FMF and its relationship with the main clinical features of the disease. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to determine 936 C/T polymorphism within the VEGF gene in 75 patients with FMF and 122 non-related healthy controls. Genotype and allele frequencies of the VEGF 936 C/T polymorphism between patients with FMF and healthy control groups were not significantly different (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.40-1.37, P = 0.335 for CT genotype; OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.67-1.83, P = 0.700, for T allele). Although VEGF 936 TT genotype was found to be more frequent in patients with FMF than in healthy controls (6.7% vs. 1.6%, respectively), the difference was not significant (OR = 4.28, 95% CI = 0.81-22.67, P = 0.108). No associations were found between the studied polymorphism and either the clinical features such as arthritis, abdominal pain, pleuritis, myalgia, arthralgia and erysipelas-like erythema of the disease or the four common studied exon 10 mutations (M694V, M680I, V726A, M694I) of the Mediterranean fever gene. Present results suggest that VEGF gene 936 C/T polymorphism does not seem to be associated with susceptibility to FMF and its clinical manifestations.