Recent increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased climate variations enforced us to improve our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere to improve human-ecosystem harmony in regard with processes and feedbacks that have functions in the earth system as a whole. Terrestrial ecosystems are principal components of the main carbon pools and land use has a decisive impact on these pools. Studies showed that converting forest and grasslands to farmlands and urban areas can result in considerable amount of carbon losses to atmosphere. However, emitted amounts may depend on the geographical region as well as type of vegetation cover of the converted areas. Recent studies showed that feedbacks between climate change and vegetation is more complicated than it was thought. Combined with these feedbacks, the land use changes may have an intricate impact on carbon exchange between atmosphere and biosphere. Studies showed that the consequences of changes in land use are beyond the expected in terms of ecosystem functioning and environmental quality. Complex interactions among climate, soil, plant productivity, and land management should be understood well to balance ecosystem functions and human welfare. In this literature review, we discussed interactions and feedbacks among terrestrial ecosystems and global carbon balance in regard with global climate change.