Background: Neuroblastoma (NB), like most human cancers, is characterized by genomic instability, manifested at the chromosomal level as allelic gain, loss or rearrangement. Genetics methods, as well as conventional and molecular cytogenetics may provide valuable clues for the identification of target loci and successful search for major genes in neuroblastoma. We aimed to investigate AURKA and MYCN gene rearrangements and the chromosomal aberrations (CAs) to determine the prognosis of neuroblastoma. Methods: We performed cytogenetic analysis by G-banding in 25 cases [11 girls (44%) and 14 boys (66%)] and in 25 controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with AURKA and MYCN gene probes was also used on interphase nuclei to screen for alterations. Results: Some 18.4% of patient cells exhibited CAs., with a significant difference between patient and control groups in the frequencies (P<0.0001). Some 72% of the cells had structural aberrations, and only 28% had numerical chnages in patients. Structural aberrations consisted of deletions, translocations, breaks and fragility in various chromosomes, 84% and 52% of the patients having deletions and translocations, respectively. Among these expressed CAs, there was a higher frequency at 1q21, 1q32, 2q21, 2q31, 2p24, 4q31, 9q11, 9q22, 13q14, 14q11.2, 14q24, and 15q22 in patients. 32% of the patients had chromosome breaks, most frequently in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 19 and X. The number of cells with breaks and the genomic damage frequencies were higher in patients (p<0.001). Aneuploidies in chromosomes X, 22, 3, 17 and 18 were most frequently observed. Numerical chromosome abnormalities were distinctive in 10.7% of sex chromosomes. Fragile sites were observed in 16% of our patients. Conclusion: Our data confirmed that there is a close correlation between amplification of the two genes, amplification of MYCN possibly contributing significantly to the oncogenic properties of AURKA. The high frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and amplifications of AURKA and MYCN genes indicate prognostic value in children with neuroblastomas and may point to contributing factors in their development.