In the clinic, although several pharmacological agents or Surgical procedure,,; are used to treat diabetes and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, their success has been limited. Therefore, development of different alternatives in treatments is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) in improving signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, the effects of PMF treatment were investigated in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced acute and chronic diabetic rats by measuring the thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, whole blood glucose levels and body weights. After STZ administration to rats, blood glucose level elevated and body weight decreased. Although PMF treatment did not affect changes in body weight, the blood glucose levels of PMF-treated diabetic rats exhibited a decrease during the treatments. Diabetic animals displayed marked decrease in mechanical thresholds and thermal latencies. While treatment of PMF partially restored the mechanical thresholds and thermal latency in acute diabetic rats, PMF caused a corrective effect on only mechanical threshold of chronic diabetic rats. These results suggested that treatment of PMF can potentially ameliorate the painful symptoms of diabetes, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia, by partially preventing the hyperglycemia. Bioelectromagnetics 31:39-47, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.