Turkey is a net importer of energy and its imports continue to grow. As fossil fuel energy becomes scarcer, Turkey will likely face higher energy prices, energy disruptions, and greater energy insecurity within the next few decades unless important steps and measures towards alternative energy supplies, conservation, and proactive government policies are taken. Turkey has substantial renewable energy potential. Primary renewable energy resources in Turkey are hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal and solar. Turkey has several advantages to utilize renewable energy sources, but the potential benefits of renewable sources are not fully realized. Investments in renewable energy sources will not only reduce energy costs to rural consumers but they will also create new job opportunities for rural populations. Rural area households and industries in developing countries suffer greatly from energy scarcity. Energy, an essential need for every individual and for economic development, has always been lacking in rural areas of developing countries. The income of these rural populations depends largely on farming. Energy is needed primarily for pumping water for agriculture and domestic activities. Most of the energy needs in rural areas are met with traditional biomass for household cooking and heating, and human animal power for agriculture. Energy efficiency and production on the farm are important components for agriculture sustainability. This paper analyzes the potential of renewable energy sources and examines the negative effects of energy insufficiency in rural areas.