This study was undertaken to evaluate resting electroencephalographic (EEG) changes and their relations to cerebral maturation in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. Cerebral maturation is known to be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Twenty-five right-handed patients with primary nocturnal enuresis, aged 6 to 14 years, and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in this cross-sectional case-control study. The abnormalities detected using such techniques as hemispheral asymmetry, regional differences, and hyperventilation response in addition to visual and quantitative EEG analysis were examined statistically by multivariate analysis. A decrease in alpha activity in the left (dominant hemisphere) temporal lobe and in the frontal lobes bilaterally and an increase in delta activity in the right temporal region were observed. We concluded that insufficient cerebral maturation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of primary nocturnal enuresis, and EEG, as a noninvasive and inexpensive method, could be used in evaluating cerebral maturation.