Natural radionuclide content of disposed phosphogypsum as TENORM produced from phosphorus fertilizer industry in Turkey

Gezer F., Turhan S., Ugur F. A. , Goren E., KURT M. Z. , UFUKTEPE Y.

ANNALS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY, vol.50, pp.33-37, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.anucene.2012.07.018
  • Title of Journal : ANNALS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.33-37


This study aims to determine radiological characterization of disposed phosphogypsum (PG) as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material produced from phosphorus fertilizer plants (PFPs) in Turkey and evaluate radiological impacts of outdoor storage and transport and the usage of PG as additive and filling materials in building sector and road construction. The mean activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 measured for the PG samples from PFP A and PFP B are 125.0, 15.1 and 7.5 Bq kg(-1) and 436.0, 9.4 and 13.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 are also compared with available reported data from other countries in the literature. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (Ra-eq) index calculated for the PFP A PG samples is 146.7 Bq kg(-1) which is lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) set for building materials and for the PFP B PG samples is 449.6 Bq kg(-1) which is within the recommended safety limits for usability of PG as aggregate in making roads, streets, pavements and railroad ballast. Generic exposure scenarios given in the Radiation Protection 122 were used for radiological evaluation for members of the public and workers. The mean annual effective doses evaluated for members of the public and workers are lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.