Detection of primary clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori and association between cagA(+) status and clinical outcome

Yula E., NAĞIYEV T. , Kaya O. A. , Inci M., Celik M. M. , KÖKSAL F.

FOLIA MICROBIOLOGICA, vol.58, no.2, pp.141-146, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12223-012-0192-8
  • Title of Journal : FOLIA MICROBIOLOGICA
  • Page Numbers: pp.141-146


Helicobacter pylori was examined in 110 patients (82 (74.5) with gastritis, 18 (16.4) with duodenitis, six (5.5) with duodenal ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux, and four (3.6 %) with normal) with gastrointestinal problems living in rural area, no history of macrolide use, and detected by culture (71.8) or direct detection from gastric biopsies by PCR (82.7 %). Also, cagA gene was identified using PCR and was found positive in 68/91 (74.7 %) strains. The prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori was investigated by two methods including PCR-RFLP (7.7 (A2142G 1.1 and A2143G 6.6 %)) and twofold agar dilution (8.9 %) to detect phenotypic and genotypic status simultaneously. Among all the H. pylori positive patients, eight (8.8 %) isolates were found to be resistant to clarithromycin by at least one of the AD and/or PCR-RFLP methods. H. pylori positive rates were significantly correlated with patients' sex, age, and endoscopic findings (p = 0.040, < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in gender or endoscopic findings related to cagA (+) and cagA (-) patients. The gene of cagA was not significantly helpful in predicting the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection alone. In conclusion, we revealed that there was a low prevalence of primer clarithromycin resistance in patients living in rural area with no history of macrolide use. The prevalence of mutant strains among the macrolide-resistant H. pylori varies even geographically between close provinces.