Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent cardiac arrhythmia and causes mortality in the community. Cardioversion and catheter ablation are frequently used methods for rhythm control. Oral anticoagulants have been used for many years in the prevention of thromboembolic complications in patients with AF. Both cardioversion and catheter ablation have been associated with certain complication risks especially thromboembolism, which can be significantly reduced by adequate anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss the efficacy and safety parameters of continuous rivaroxaban treatment compared with dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist therapy in patients who were planned to undergo cardioversion and catheter ablation according to the data of X-VERT and VENTURE-AF trials.