The main purpose of this research was to investigate the correlations between the elementary school 4th grade students' anxiety levels toward mathematics and their self-efficacy perceptions. This study was designed as a correlational survey model. The sample of the research consisted of 193 students who were selected through convenience sampling method among 4th grade students attending four elementary schools in Pozanti county of Adana province. In this study, "Modified Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale-Elementary School" adapted by Lim and Chapman (2013) and translated into Turkish by Haciomeroglu and Kutluca (2016) and "Mathematics Self-efficacy Source Scale" developed by Usher and Pajares (2009) and adapted into Turkish by Ozkan (2019) were used as the data collection tools. The results of the research showed that the anxiety levels of the students were low, mathematics self-efficacy perceptions of the students were high and there was not a significant difference between these two variables and the genders of the students. Moreover, it was determined that there was a moderately negative correlation between math anxiety and mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics self-efficacy was the predictor of math anxiety. The results of the research were evaluated in line with the studies in the related literature.